Development Indicators


HDI value: .925
HDI rank: 14th
Life expectancy:
• total population: 79.1 years
• male: 76.11 years
• female: 82.26 years (2008 est.)
IMR: 4.03 deaths/1,000 live births
CBR: 8.18 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)
CDR: 10.8 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)
pgr: -0.044% (2008 est.)
GDP pc (PPP): $34,100 (2007 est.)
Labor force per sector: The labor force in 2001 numbered 41.9 million workers. Employment by sector was as follows: industry 33%, agriculture 3%, and services 64%. Official unemployment was at 9.8% in 2002.
Gender equity:
• female literacy rate: 99% (2003 est.)
• female school length expectancy: 16 years (2006)
• universal suffrage
• female share of non-agricultural wage employment: 45.9%
• seats in parliament held by women: 32.2%

deu.jpg
Gridded Population Cartogram for Germany (http://www.worldmapper.org/countrycartograms/carto_deu.htm)

History

Aspects of the history that may have impacted the development of the country:
Germany was split into two separate countries after WWII. West Germany was a democratic capitalist society which experienced economic growth through economic aid provided by the USA and through the aims of the Marshall Plan. West Germany also experienced an economic boost in the form of the “economic miracle” (in German: Wirtschaftswunder). East Germany however had a centrally planned economy with the means of production almost entirely state owned. In East Germany there was always a shortage of consumer goods. The culture was initially repressed but after the 1960s the culture was allowed to flourish, this resulted in new movements in the East German culture. After the unification of Germany the policies of West Germany became predominant and the country established a strong economy. The development of the country is also in accordance with the goals of what was previously West Germany with a strong focus on environmental issues, having a strong influence in the European Union and promoting cultural activities.

What role can history have on the rate of development of a country?
It is important to look at the history of a country when researching the development of that country because it is key to understanding the background to the observed countries current status. Without a knowledge of the history of the country it would be hard to explain the nature of development or even show that development exists.

Access to basic needs

Water:
• Universal access to water with more than 99% of the users connected to a public water supply system.
• 80% of the public water is used for domestic and small-scale commercial users.
• There is no water scarcity in Germany except for a few local droughts.
• Public water supply sources:
Groundwater: 65%
Surface water: 21%
Springs: 9%
Water from wells near lakes and rivers: 5%

• 188 km³ of total renewable water resources (2005 estimate)
• Area of water: 7,798 sq. km
• Area of water per capita: 94.635 sq km per 1 million people
• Freshwater withdrawal (for agriculture, industry, and domestic use): 38.01 km²/year (total), 460 m²/year (per capita)
• Domestic use: 12%, industrial use: 68%, agricultural use: 20%

Sanitation:
• 93% of all users have connection to sewer lines, while the remaining 7% are connected to on-site sanitation.
• Raw sewage pollution is an environmental issue in the Baltic Sea.

Slums:
• Although there is not a presence of slums in Germany, homelessness is an issue in the urban areas of Germany.

Urban population:
• Total: 62,016,990 people, 88% of the total population
• Urban population growth (annual percentage): -0.03%

Undernourished population:
• Prevalence of undernourishment: 2.5 % of the total population

Sources:
http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Water-supply-and-sanitation-in-Germany#_note-4
http://www.nationmaster.com/red/country/gm-germany/geo-geography&all=1
https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/gm.html#Geo
(2001 estimate)

Distribution of wealth

There seem to be multiple core areas around the major urban centers of the country (see G-Econ map below). There are periphery regions in the center of the country in the more rural areas. Since 2000 there has been a sharp increase in income inequality in the country. According to the OECD the richest 10% of the country on average make about 7 times as much as the poorest 10%.

Gini coefficient: 28 as of 2005
The Gini index measures the difference between a theoretical perfect equality (each part of the population shares equal amounts of the countries income, eg, the lowest 10% of the population have 10% of the countries wealth etc, this is measured on a Lorenz Curve) with 0 meaning perfect equality and 100 representing perfect inequality. Germany ranks country 120 (from 100) or the 11th lowest GINI measured. The lowest rank is Denmark with 24.7, the highest Namibia with 74.3. (Nationmaster.)
Share of poorest quintile (1/5th, lowest 20%) in national consumption or income%- 1992-2005: 8.5%

Trade

export commodities: machinery, vehicles, chemicals, metals and manufactures, foodstuffs, textiles
partners: Netherlands, France, Belgium, China, Italy, UK, US, Austria,, Spain
imports: machinery, vehicles, chemicals, foodstuffs, textiles, metals
trade balance: 13.7 Billion Euro
trade blocs: European Union

Aid

SKANDER
Percentage of GNP provided as aid: $2.56 per $1,000 of GDP (1998 estimate)
Aid recipients: India, Niger, Yemen.
Membership of global institutions:
• UN member
• EU member
• Member of UN umbrella organisations (e.g. WHO)
• International Organisation Membership:
AfDB (nonregional members): African Development Bank
EBRD: European Bank for Reconstruction and Development
EMU: European Monetary Union
G8
IBRD: International Bank for Reconstruction and Development
UNWTO: United Nations World Trade Organisation (formerly WTO)
UNESCO: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
NATO: North Atlantic Trade Organisation
UNCTAD: United Nations Conference on Trade & Development

UNHCR: United Nations Higher Commission for Refugees

UNIDO: United Nations Industrial Development Organization
UNMIS: United Nations Mission in Sudan
WADB (nonregional): West African Development Bank
WFTU: World Free Trade Union
WIPO: World Intellectual Property Organization

Sources:
https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/gm.html#Govt
http://www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,2144,3727632,00.html
http://www.nowpublic.com/world/germany-doubles-aid-budget-niger
http://www.almotamar.net/en/5529.htm

Resources and resource consumption

electricity consumption: 545.5 billion kWh (2005)
production: 579.4 billion kWh (2005)
oil production: 141,700 bbl/day (2005)
oil Consumption: 2.618 million bbl/day (2005 est.)
other energy resources:
Natural Gas consumption: 19.9 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Natural Gas production: 96.84 billion cu m (2005 est.)
CIA World Fact Book
The consumption is divided up as follows:
Mineral oils
33.8%
Natural gas
22.7%
Hard Coal
14.1%
Nuclear energy
11.1%
Lignite
11.7%
Renewables
6.6%

Environmental quality

ecological footprint: 4.80 global hectares per person
environmental concerns:
• Air pollution due to emissions from coal-burning facilities and industries
• Sulfur dioxide emissions lead to acid rain which damages forests
• Pollution in Baltic Sea from raw sewage and industrial runoff from rivers in Eastern Germany
• Hazardous waste disposal (working on 15 year plan to end use of nuclear power)
• Working to identify nature preservation areas

air quality:
• Green House Gas Total Emissions: 1,020 teragrams (megatonne)of CO2 equivalents
• Green House Gas Emissions per Capita: 12.3 tons of CO2 equivalents
• 162 million tones of carbon dioxide emissions in 2003

Germany_3dmap2.JPG

from G-Econ project, Yale University.
The basic metric is the regional equivalent of gross domestic product. Gross cell product (GCP) is measured at a 1-degree longitude by 1-degree latitude resolution at a global scale.

http://www.nationmaster.com/index.php
http://globalis.gvu.unu.edu/
http://hdr.undp.org/en/statistics/
http://www.oneworld.net/
http://www.eldis.org/
http://gecon.yale.edu/
http://www.unhabitat.org/
http://www.gapminder.org/